Oregon Cities and Counties Continue to Refine Cannabis Rules
We always talk about the cannabis industry being dynamic. That’s true from a markets perspective and it’s true from a regulatory point of view. When it comes to regulations in particular, industry observers tend to focus on the big picture developments: e.g., whether marijuana will finally be re- or de-scheduled at the federal level, whether we will get a farm bill legalizing industrial hemp nationwide, or which new states have legalized cannabis. Those broad issues deservedly get a lot of press. However, marijuana business owners are often more concerned about what is going on locally, at the city or county level. In fact, most cannabis business owners get more passionate about proposed changes to local regulations than proposed state- or even federal law developments.
My law firm has worked with regulated cannabis business in Oregon, Washington and California since 2010. I suspect that none of our cannabis business lawyers support extensive local regulation of marijuana (let alone local licensing programs). Because states tend to promulgate extensive regulatory structures, local rules tend to be duplicative and controversial once you get beyond basic land use concepts. That said, cities and counties are often pressed by their citizens to regulate cannabis businesses, and state governments give ample regulatory authority to local jurisdictions– often including the choice to “opt out” of industry participation altogether.
When localities do regulate cannabis, the process is often iterative, meaning rules are adopted and amended over time. Sometimes the changes accrue in response to changes in state law; sometimes they are in response to litigation; sometimes they are needed when current rules are failing; and sometimes the local population just changes its opinion about cannabis businesses altogether (usually, for the better).
We continue to see cities and counties modify their rules in Oregon. Below is a brief encapsulation of what is going on around the state today, based on client projects. This list is probably not exhaustive, so if you have updates on what is going on in your area, we’d love to hear from you.
Clackamas County is home to 220 cannabis licenses by our count, making it home to over 10% of OLCC licensees and the fourth largest cannabis county statewide. We have been a part of most rulemaking processes on offer at the County, from the original implementation of Measure 91 to the reversal of the ban on cannabis processing. Recently, Clackamas County proposed to modify its rules yet again, by limiting the availability of production on certain lots. The relevant Planning Commission hearing was held last night, and the Board of Commissioners will hold a public hearing on the proposed license limits on January 16. The amendments, if approved, would limit continguous lots of record under the same ownership to one OLCC producer license, or one medical marijuana (OHA) grow site. The change would apply only to lots zoned as Ag/Forest, Exclusive Farm Use, and Timber. Current OLCC producer licenses existing on contiguous lots in these zones would be grandfathered. The proposed revised regulations are here, and an FAQ is here. There is still plenty of time to submit comments.
Anyone familiar with the Oregon marijuana industry knows that Josephine County has had a rough time in its efforts to regulate cannabis. The County has suffered several consecutive legal setbacks, but apparently is pushing forward with a new effort to limit OLCC marijuana activities on “rural residential” zoned properties. The Board of Commissioners most recently held a land use hearing on November 7, with a first reading of the proposed new ordinance. No word yet on next steps, but it appears that the County is going through the proper public notice requirements this time, and fortunately the current ordinance draft includes grandfathering rights for current licensees (“non-conforming use” application options).
Deschutes County Ordinance 2018-012 took effect on Friday. The new regulations reduced the available County acreage for cannabis by 17%, mostly by prohibiting marijuana production and processing in the multiple use agricultural (MUA) zone. The ordinance contains many other provisions as well, from new setback requirements to noise and odor mitigation rules. Although Ordinance 2018-012 is now in effect, we are including Deschutes County here because an appeal of this ordinance was filed with the Oregon Land Use Board of Appeals a few weeks back. The appeal means that these regulations are in flux to some extent, and will not be affirmed or rejected for several months.
New Oregon cities
Last month, we covered the industry-friendly reversals of Ontario, Klamath Falls, Clatskanie and Sumpter, a quartet of cities scattered about the state which initially prohibited cannabis but are now opening their borders to OLCC licensed businesses. It now appears that the cities of Gates and Joseph may have “legalized” as well. For information on Ontario rulemaking, go here. For information on the Klamath Falls process, go here. We do not yet have information on the remaining four cities, but interested parties should reach out to those City Councils to gauge plans for rulemaking in the newly green jurisdictions.